Lesson 8: -ger Verbs

-ger verbs are regular -er verbs that are also stem changing. The most common -ger verb is manger. For manger and all other regular -ger verbs, the stem change is adding an e after the g. This only applies in the nous form. In this case, the change is made to preserve the soft g pronunciation rather than the hard g that would be present if the e were not included.


French Verb • Food and drink
manger to eat
past participle – mangé
first personje mangejeuh mahngeI eatnous mangeonsnoo vmahnge ohnwe eat
second persontu mangestoo mahngeyou eatvous mangezvoo mahngaywe eat
third personil mangeeel mahngehe eatsils mangenteel mahngethey eat
(masc. or mized)
elle mangeell mahngeshe eats
on mangeohn mahngeone eatselles mangentell mahngethey eat (fem.)

Other -ger Verbs

  • changer – to change
  • exiger – to require
  • nager – to swim
  • soulager – to relieve
  • voyager – to travel


French Vocabulary • Food and drink
Food La nourriture
les fruits – fruitsles légumes – vegetables
la bananebananala carottecarrot
la cerisecherryles épinards (m pl)spinach
le citronlemonl’oignon (m)onion
la fraisestrawberryles petits pois (m pl)peas
l’orange (f)orangela pomme de terrepotato
la pommeapplela tomatetomato
le raisingrapeles asperges (f pl)asparagus
le pamplemoussegrapefruitles haricots (m pl)beans
la viande – meatles fruits de mer (m pl) – shellfish, seafood
l’agneau (m)lambLa coquille Saint-Jacques (f)scallop
la dindeturkeyle crabecrab
le jambonham
le porcporkle poisson – fish
le pouletchickenles anchois (m pl)anchovies
le boeufbeefle saumonsalmon
la saucissesausagel’anguille (f)eel
les produits laitiers – dairy productsOther Foods
le beurrebutterle croissantcrescent roll
le fromagecheeseles frites (f pl)“French fries”
le laitmilkla crêpecrepe
le yaourt/le yoghurtyogurtla mayonnaisemayonnaise
le dessert – dessertla moutardemustard
le bonboncandyle painbread
le chocolatchocolatele beurrebutter
le gâteaucakela tartine de pain beurréslice of buttered bread
la glaceice creamle poivrepepper
la moussemoussele rizrice
la tarte (aux pommes)(apple) piele selsalt
la glace (au chocolat)(chocolate) ice creamle sucresugar
la glace (à la vanille)(vanilla) ice creamla confiturejam


The verb boire is translated to to drink. It is irregularly conjugated (it does not count as a regular -re verb) as follows:

French Verb • Food and drink
boire to drink
past participle – bu
first personje boisjeuh bwahI drinknous buvonsnoo boovohnwe drink
second persontu boistoo bwahyou drinkvous buvezvoo boovayyou drink
third personil boiteel bwahhe drinksils boiventeel bwahvethey drink
(masc. or mized)
elle boitell bwahshe drinks
on boitohn bwahone drinkselles boiventell bwahvethey drink (fem.)


les boissons – drinks
la bièrebeer
le cafécoffee
le chocolat chaudhot chocolate
le cocasoda
la limonadelemon soda
le citron pressélemonade
l’eau (f)water
le jusjuice
le jus d’orangeorange juice
le jus de pommeapple juice
le jus de raisingrape juice
le jus de tomatetomato juice
le thétea
le vinwine

Partitive Article

The partitive article de indicates, among other things, the word some. As learned earlier, de and le contract (combine) into du, as de and les contract into des. Also, instead of du or de la, de l’ is used in front of vowels.
When speaking about food, the partitive article is used at some times while the definite article (le, la, les) is used at other times, and the indefinite article (un, une) in yet another set of situations. In general “de” refers to a part of food (a piece of pie) whereas the definite article (le) refers to a food in general (I like pie (in general)). The indefinite article refers to an entire unit of a food (I would like a (whole) pie).
When speaking about preferences, use the definite article:

J’aime la glace.I like ice cream.
Nous préférons le steak.We prefer steak.
Vous aimez les fritesYou like French fries.

When speaking about eating or drinking an item, there are specific situations for the use of each article.

Def. art.specific/whole items
J’ai mangé la tarte.I ate the (whole) pie.
Ind. art.known quantity
J’ai mangé une tarte.I ate a pie.
Part. art.unknown quantity
J’ai mangé de la tarte.I ate some pie.

In the negative construction, certain rules apply. As one has learned in a previous lesson, un or une changes to de (meaning, in this context, any) in a negative construction. Similarly, du, de la, or des change to de in negative constructions.

Nous avons mangé une tarte.We ate a pie.
Nous n’avons pas mangé de tarte.We did not eat a pie/ We did not eat any pie.
Nous avons mangé de la tarte.We ate some pie.
Nous n’avons pas mangé de tarte.We did not eat some pie/ We did not eat any pie.

Note : Now you should understand better how that “Quoi de neuf?”(what’s new?) encountered in the very first lesson was constructed… “Quoi de plus beau?!” (what is there prettier?)


To say ‘some of it’ without specifying the exact object, the pronoun ‘en’ can be used. Additionally, ‘en’ can mean ‘of it’ when ‘it’ is not specified. For instance, instead of saying J’ai besoin d’argent, if the idea of money has already been raised, it can be stated as ‘J’en ai besoin’. This is because en replaces du, de la or des when there the noun is not specifically mentioned in that sentence.
Like with ‘me’, ‘te’ and other pronouns, en (meaning ‘some’) comes before the verb.

Tu joues du piano? Non, je n’en joue pasDo you play piano? No, I don’t play it.
Vous prenez du poisson? Oui, j’en prends.Are you having fish? Yes, I’m having some.
Vous avez commandé de l’eau? Oui, nous en avons commandé.Did you order some water? Yes, we ordered some.



French Verb • Food and drink
mettre to put
past participle – mis
first personje metsjeuh mayI putnous mettonsnoo mettohnwe put
second persontu metstoo mayyou putvous mettezvoo mettayyou put
third personil meteel mayhe putsils mettenteel metthey put
(masc. or mized)
elle metell mayshe puts
on metohn mayone putselles mettentell metthey put (fem.)

Related Words

  • mettre – to put on, to turn on, to place
  • permettre – to allow
  • remettre – to put back
  • remettre en place – to set back into place
  • soumettre – to submit
  • se remettre – to recover from an illness
  • se remettre en route – to get back on the road

Idioms and Related Expressions

  • mettre au jour – to bring to light
  • mettre de l’argent de coté – to put money aside
  • mettre fin à – to put an end to
  • mettre la main à la pâte – to pitch in
  • mettre le contact – to start the car
  • mettre le couvert – to set the table
  • se mettre à table – to sit down to eat
  • se mettre d’accord – to agree
  • se mettre en forme – to get in shape
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