Lesson 8: -ger Verbs

-ger verbs are regular -er verbs that are also stem changing. The most common -ger verb is manger. For manger and all other regular -ger verbs, the stem change is adding an e after the g. This only applies in the nous form. In this case, the change is made to preserve the soft g pronunciation rather than the hard g that would be present if the e were not included.

Formation

French Verb • Food and drink
manger to eat
past participle – mangé
Singular Plural
first person je mange jeuh mahnge I eat nous mangeons noo vmahnge ohn we eat
second person tu manges too mahnge you eat vous mangez voo mahngay we eat
third person il mange eel mahnge he eats ils mangent eel mahnge they eat
(masc. or mized)
elle mange ell mahnge she eats
on mange ohn mahnge one eats elles mangent ell mahnge they eat (fem.)

Other -ger Verbs

  • changer – to change
  • exiger – to require
  • nager – to swim
  • soulager – to relieve
  • voyager – to travel

Food

French Vocabulary • Food and drink
Food La nourriture
les fruits – fruits les légumes – vegetables
la banane banana la carotte carrot
la cerise cherry les épinards (m pl) spinach
le citron lemon l’oignon (m) onion
la fraise strawberry les petits pois (m pl) peas
l’orange (f) orange la pomme de terre potato
la pomme apple la tomate tomato
le raisin grape les asperges (f pl) asparagus
le pamplemousse grapefruit les haricots (m pl) beans
la viande – meat les fruits de mer (m pl) – shellfish, seafood
l’agneau (m) lamb La coquille Saint-Jacques (f) scallop
la dinde turkey le crabe crab
le jambon ham
le porc pork le poisson – fish
le poulet chicken les anchois (m pl) anchovies
le boeuf beef le saumon salmon
la saucisse sausage l’anguille (f) eel
les produits laitiers – dairy products Other Foods
le beurre butter le croissant crescent roll
le fromage cheese les frites (f pl) “French fries”
le lait milk la crêpe crepe
le yaourt/le yoghurt yogurt la mayonnaise mayonnaise
le dessert – dessert la moutarde mustard
le bonbon candy le pain bread
le chocolat chocolate le beurre butter
le gâteau cake la tartine de pain beurré slice of buttered bread
la glace ice cream le poivre pepper
la mousse mousse le riz rice
la tarte (aux pommes) (apple) pie le sel salt
la glace (au chocolat) (chocolate) ice cream le sucre sugar
la glace (à la vanille) (vanilla) ice cream la confiture jam

Boire

The verb boire is translated to to drink. It is irregularly conjugated (it does not count as a regular -re verb) as follows:

French Verb • Food and drink
boire to drink
past participle – bu
Singular Plural
first person je bois jeuh bwah I drink nous buvons noo boovohn we drink
second person tu bois too bwah you drink vous buvez voo boovay you drink
third person il boit eel bwah he drinks ils boivent eel bwahve they drink
(masc. or mized)
elle boit ell bwah she drinks
on boit ohn bwah one drinks elles boivent ell bwahve they drink (fem.)

Drinks

les boissons – drinks
la bière beer
le café coffee
le chocolat chaud hot chocolate
le coca soda
la limonade lemon soda
le citron pressé lemonade
l’eau (f) water
le jus juice
le jus d’orange orange juice
le jus de pomme apple juice
le jus de raisin grape juice
le jus de tomate tomato juice
le thé tea
le vin wine

Partitive Article

The partitive article de indicates, among other things, the word some. As learned earlier, de and le contract (combine) into du, as de and les contract into des. Also, instead of du or de la, de l’ is used in front of vowels.
When speaking about food, the partitive article is used at some times while the definite article (le, la, les) is used at other times, and the indefinite article (un, une) in yet another set of situations. In general “de” refers to a part of food (a piece of pie) whereas the definite article (le) refers to a food in general (I like pie (in general)). The indefinite article refers to an entire unit of a food (I would like a (whole) pie).
When speaking about preferences, use the definite article:

J’aime la glace. I like ice cream.
Nous préférons le steak. We prefer steak.
Vous aimez les frites You like French fries.

When speaking about eating or drinking an item, there are specific situations for the use of each article.

Def. art. specific/whole items
J’ai mangé la tarte. I ate the (whole) pie.
Ind. art. known quantity
J’ai mangé une tarte. I ate a pie.
Part. art. unknown quantity
J’ai mangé de la tarte. I ate some pie.

In the negative construction, certain rules apply. As one has learned in a previous lesson, un or une changes to de (meaning, in this context, any) in a negative construction. Similarly, du, de la, or des change to de in negative constructions.

Nous avons mangé une tarte. We ate a pie.
Nous n’avons pas mangé de tarte. We did not eat a pie/ We did not eat any pie.
Nous avons mangé de la tarte. We ate some pie.
Nous n’avons pas mangé de tarte. We did not eat some pie/ We did not eat any pie.

Note : Now you should understand better how that “Quoi de neuf?”(what’s new?) encountered in the very first lesson was constructed… “Quoi de plus beau?!” (what is there prettier?)

En

To say ‘some of it’ without specifying the exact object, the pronoun ‘en’ can be used. Additionally, ‘en’ can mean ‘of it’ when ‘it’ is not specified. For instance, instead of saying J’ai besoin d’argent, if the idea of money has already been raised, it can be stated as ‘J’en ai besoin’. This is because en replaces du, de la or des when there the noun is not specifically mentioned in that sentence.
Like with ‘me’, ‘te’ and other pronouns, en (meaning ‘some’) comes before the verb.

Tu joues du piano? Non, je n’en joue pas Do you play piano? No, I don’t play it.
Vous prenez du poisson? Oui, j’en prends. Are you having fish? Yes, I’m having some.
Vous avez commandé de l’eau? Oui, nous en avons commandé. Did you order some water? Yes, we ordered some.



Mettre

Formation

French Verb • Food and drink
mettre to put
past participle – mis
Singular Plural
first person je mets jeuh may I put nous mettons noo mettohn we put
second person tu mets too may you put vous mettez voo mettay you put
third person il met eel may he puts ils mettent eel met they put
(masc. or mized)
elle met ell may she puts
on met ohn may one puts elles mettent ell met they put (fem.)

Related Words

  • mettre – to put on, to turn on, to place
  • permettre – to allow
  • remettre – to put back
  • remettre en place – to set back into place
  • soumettre – to submit
  • se remettre – to recover from an illness
  • se remettre en route – to get back on the road

Idioms and Related Expressions

  • mettre au jour – to bring to light
  • mettre de l’argent de coté – to put money aside
  • mettre fin à – to put an end to
  • mettre la main à la pâte – to pitch in
  • mettre le contact – to start the car
  • mettre le couvert – to set the table
  • se mettre à table – to sit down to eat
  • se mettre d’accord – to agree
  • se mettre en forme – to get in shape
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